1973, BA in Econ., Univ. of Warwick; 1975, MPhil, Nuffield Coll., Oxford. 1975-79, Lecturer, Dept of Political Economy, Univ. of Glasgow; 1979-85, Economist, HM Treasury; 1985-88, First Secretary, British Embassy, Washington DC; 1988-89, Sr Economic Adviser, HM Treasury; 1989-90, Press Secretary to Chancellor of the Exchequer; 1990-94, Press Secretary to Prime Minister; 1994-97, Deputy Director, HM Treasury & UK Rep., EU Monetary Cttee; 1997-98, Exec. Director for UK, IMF & World Bank; 1998-99, Director, HM Treasury, Macroeconomic Policy Prospects; 1999, MD, HM Treasury, Macroeconomic Policy & Int'l Finance. Treasury Rep., Monetary Policy Cttee. Chancellor, Exchequer's G7 Deputy. 2005-11, Cabinet Secretary & Head of Civil Service. 2012, entered House of Lords.